Cancer diagnosis

To make a diagnosis, an oncologist uses:

The patient’s clinical history, which includes the patient’s complaints, his general condition and the presence of oncological diseases in relatives.

The results of the biopsy. This is a mandatory diagnostic method in oncology, which allows you to examine the type of cells and confirms or refutes the presence of cancer.

A general blood test, which in cancer reveals an increase in ESR, an increase in the number of neutrophils and a decrease in the number of lymphocytes.

A biochemical blood test, which, in the presence of a disease, reveals a decrease in the level of total protein and urea. With sarcoma, cancer of the liver, lungs and organs of the reproductive system, the level of sugar in the blood may change. Oncological diseases of the liver are accompanied by an increase in the level of bilirubin and ALT, and an increased level of alkaline phosphatase is a sign of bone tumors, gallbladder or liver damage.

Blood test for cancer markers. This analysis is used to assess the dynamics of the disease, allows timely detection of relapse, evaluate the effectiveness of therapy and suspect the oncological process at an early stage.


Ultrasound is a harmless research method that allows you to get an image of internal organs and identify neoplasms in the body cavities.

MRI and CT scans, which allow to obtain an image of the organ under study, to detect the presence of a tumor and the presence of large metastases when using a contrast agent.

Scintigraphy (isotopic examination of bones) to detect metastases.

Instrumental methods. Gastrooncologists use esophagoscopy, gastroscopy, duodenoscopy, colonoscopy and rectoromanoscopy to diagnose the disease. Pulmanologists prescribe bronchoscopy and thoracoscopy, oncologists-urologists – cystoscopy, urethroscopy and nephroscopy, and oncologists-gynecologists – colposcopy and hysteroscopy.

Bronchography is performed to detect lung cancer, angiography helps to detect vascular tumors, and mammography helps to detect breast tumors.

Positron emission tomography and single-photon emission tomography can also be used.


For timely diagnosis in the population with risk factors for the development of a certain type of oncopathology, screening is carried out (primary examination in the absence of symptoms of the disease).



Treatment of cancer depends on its type, aggressiveness and stage of development. Also, the choice of treatment method is influenced by the general condition of the patient.


For the treatment of patients, oncologists use:

Surgical methods. Radical operations can be used, in which all cancer-altered tissue is removed, cryosurgery, laser surgery, etc.

Radiation therapy (radiotherapy).